I am currently on assignment in Massachusetts – and we’ve had our share of snow in the last few weeks. It certainly makes me long for Latin America..
But while I may be in the northeast for the next several weeks, it doesn’t mean that I am hiding under a rock – so I continue to talk / read/ and research issues in medical tourism.
One of the newest reports comes out of the United Kingdom. The UK has embraced medical tourism to a greater degree that Americans have, and UK researchers are some of the forerunners in the field. (There are multiple reasons for the ready adoption of medical tourism by large numbers of British citizens but that’s a different topic entirely.)
The latest news from the Yorkshire Post is a timely and necessary reminder for all potential medical tourists and facilitators out there. The article discusses the recently published paper, entitled, “The three myths of medical tourism” as well as interviews with medical tourists.
Research into the medical tourism industry
The paper is based on results of a study conducted at York University. Researchers at York University have an ongoing medical tourism project looking at multiple aspects of medical tourism including financial/ economic, as well as quality and continuity of care issues.
Much of what the researchers at York are studying are topics we have discussed previously on our site:
– the lack of standardized guidelines for ensuring quality of care (and continuity of care from the moment the patient leaves home until recovery)
– the lack of accountability for facilitators/ tour operators/ medical tourism companies for patient safety and outcomes (this means that companies can send you to the cheapest surgeon)
– the lack of recourse for patients who experience complications/ serious injury or inadequate care. (It’s a black hole for medical malpractice at present).
– The potential financial costs of complications: While some surgeons require their patients to purchase ‘complication insurance’ to cover treatment of complications (if they occur) in the home country, there is no universal requirement.
Unfortunately, much of this work (by Lunt & Smith) is currently in-press. I’m anxious to see their reports but I am also wondering what sort of regional differences may exist. Medical tourism by British residents is often to neighboring areas of Europe, Eastern Europe, India and Israel. I’d be fascinated to see how that compares with outcomes and experiences for medical travelers to Latin America, and different South American countries in particular.
In any case – it’s a timely report. Hard scientific information is dearly needed since the majority of data over the last decade has been anecdotal in nature or statistical “projections/ estimates / guesstimates”.
Hard data is particularly important when it comes to allegations regarding poor post-operative care/ and increased incidence of infections (specifically in medical tourists from the UK who traveled to India). Many of these complaints arise from local plastic surgeons and may have little supporting data. If there is a problem, we need actual numbers, not case reports (particularly if we are dealing with antibiotic resistant infections).
The industry has also been plagued with numerous biases on both sides.. – Biases towards the perception that all overseas medical care is cheaper (not always the case)
and/or that cheaper = inferior
Quantitative data would also be helpful when discussing patient satisfaction and quality of care. Most of the time, statistics are bandied about from the Deloitte Institute – but I want to hear what patients think from other sources. How did patients rate their experiences in Britain? In California? Where were the patients going? What countries? What clinics were mentioned repeatedly?
Other issues – Patients poorly informed
Researchers also found that medical travelers were poorly informed or ignorant of the risks involved with medical tourism.
In some cases, patients were ‘willfully ignorant‘ and relied on social media and friends for all of their health information. A subset of these patients also traveled for unproven/ unregulated medical treatments (such as bovine stem cell injections).
Many patients were ignorant of the risks or potential complications of the surgical procedures themselves (lap-band was specifically cited numerous times) as well as the problems that arise when your surgeon is thousands of miles away.
Patients were also unaware/ poorly informed about the financial implications of developing/ treating complications in their home country – (or the costs involved if they needed to return to their surgeon). Some of the financial issues mentioned in this (and previous data I’ve encountered) is more specific to British residents with their National Health Services and it’s reimbursement structure.
However, it’s not unimaginable to picture similar circumstances for uninsured medical tourists, or tourists seeking aftercare at an “out-of-network” facility once they returned to the USA.
Ignorance of health care information – an ethical/ safety issue
Some of this ignorance may be directly attributed to the way that many medical tourism companies operate – with patients being funnelled overseas thru a “facilitator” versus referring physicians and nurses. During a recent conference on medical tourism, I was astounded when a prominent American medical facilitator brushed aside my concerns about the lack of medically trained personnel, stating, “I’ve been a paralegal for 22 years in a malpractice office – I know all that anyone needs to know about surgery.”
But what about the ‘caregiver’?
Facilitators and medical tourism companies often tout the use of ‘caregivers’. This terminology is misleading in my opinion.
Since “doctor”, “registered nurse”, and other healthcare personnel are professions that require certification and educational degrees – companies often label their assistants ‘caregivers’ since it’s illegal to use the title of nurse. In reality, the term ‘caregiver’ is more akin to ‘paid companion’. These individuals have no medical or nursing training and may actually be a source of misinformation (as this paper states.)*
In the usual course of surgery – as part of the pre-operative process, patients receive information, education and instructions during their initial consultation/ and pre-operative visits. This also gives patients a chance to ask questions, in-person to a medically knowledgeable person. Skype, and email just can’t replace this critical component.
Many times, critical information is obtained (and given) by the surgical team during the physical examination and history-taking on the initial consultation. If the referring service is a layperson, and the initial (in-person) consultation takes place after the patient arrives in the destination country, these crucial education opportunities are lost.
Call for Regulation for patient safety
As readers know, I believe that regulation is both necessary and desirable to improve/ promote and grow the medical tourism industry. This regulation needs to be undertaken by knowledgeable people/ institutions outside of the industry.
Other research in medical tourism –
Simon Fraser University – British Columbia, Canada
*In a related aside, one of the more popular Canadian medical tourism facilitators uses her unemployed sister in the role of ‘caretaker’. While the sister has no medical or nursing training, the facilitator bragged that it allows her to put her family on the payroll and bill the client for these services.