Miami plastic surgeon tied to multiple deaths


From the Miami Herald comes a terrifying story about a plastic surgery group tied to multiple patient deaths.  The surgical group which operated out of three different south Florida clinics are responsible for at least three deaths, including the recent death of a young woman from West Virginia, Heather Meadows, 29,  who had traveled to south Florida looking for cheap plastic surgery.

bandaid

In addition to this case, come reports that the group housed post-operative patients in a local horse stable.  The clinics; Encore Plastic Surgery in Hialeah, and two Miami clinics; Vanity Plastic Surgery and Spectrum Aesthetics have also been linked with multiple serious medical complications including the case of Nyosha Fowler who was comatose for 28 days after surgeons at the clinic accidentally perforated her intestine and then injected the fecally contaminated fluid into her sciatic nerve during a liposuction/ fat transfer procedure.  Ms. Fowler, who is lucky to be alive, is now permanently disabled and facing a two-million dollar medical bill for the life-saving care she received at an outside facility.

Now, Heather Meadow’s death has been ruled accidental, which is no comfort to her family or the numerous patients harmed by these surgeons. While the state of Florida has reprimanded two of the surgeons in the surgical group in the past, this hasn’t affected their practice, and the surgical clinics continue to accept new patients from across the United States and operate on unsuspecting clients.

money

Beauty, at any price?

While Florida state health officials issued an emergency restriction prohibiting one of the group’s surgeons, Dr. Osak Omulepu from operating, no charges have been made despite cell phone photographs documenting horrific conditions at the horse stables where patients were forced to stay while they recuperated from various procedures.  In fact, Dr. Osak Omulepu continues to have four star ratings on several online sites.  His license is listed as active on the Florida Medical Board, with no complaints listed under his profile page.  However, under the disciplinary actions page, there are eight separate listings that do not appear on his general profile.

One of these Complaints, (posted here) related to the death of a 31-year-old woman due to repeated liver perforation during liposuction.  The complaint also cites several other cases against the doctor and notes that Dr. Osak Omulepu is not a board certified plastic surgeon.  In fact, according to the complaints filed in March, the good doctor, holds no certification in any recognized medical specialty.

Related posts:

Plastic surgery safety & Buttloads of Pain

Patient satisfaction scores vs. clinical outcomes: The Yelp! approach to surgery

Is your ‘cosmetic surgeon’ really even a surgeon?

Patient Safety & Medical Tourism

Liposuction in a Myrtle Beach apartment

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Plastic surgery safety & Buttloads of Pain


Long time readers are familiar with our plastic surgery horror story archives. These archives (mainly) consist of cases of illegal/ unlicensed surgeons and botched plastic surgery procedures but there is also information on how to find a board certified surgeon.  Most of these cases take place in the United States where both clever marketing and underground clinics flourish due to the high costs of plastic surgery.

surgeon clip art

Buttloads of Pain

Now there is a new documentary that explores the dangers of unlicensed operators and ‘booty enhancement’.

Thanks to my friend, Matt Rines for sending me the link to the Vice documentary,”Buttloads of Pain” which talks about and talks to victims of unlicensed (and illegal) gluteal augmentation procedures (such as direct injection of silicone and other substances).

Gluteal Augmentation Procedures

For more information on legitimate gluteal augmentation procedures, read our interviews with licensed plastic surgeons.

Gluteal implants – Interview with Dr. Gustavo Gaspar

Fat transfer : Dr. Luis Botero

Update: February 2014

For readers that have been asking about the background, history and the profound psychological and sociological impact of the ‘big booty’ and other Colombian influences on (global) plastic surgery trends & beauty ideals – this article by Mimi Yagoub at Colombia Reports may be a bit of an eye-opener.

In the operating room with Dr. Gustavo Gaspar Blanco


Dr. Gustavo Gaspar, plastic surgeon

Dr. Gustavo Gaspar, plastic surgeon

In the operating room with Dr. Gustavo Gaspar Blanco

Hospital de la Familia,

Mexicali, B.C.

Mexico

After interviewing Dr. Gaspar, he graciously invited me to join him in the operating room as an observer for several cases during the week.

Hospital de la Familia

As reviewed in the Mexicali! mini-guide to medical tourism, Hospital de la Familia is widely acknowledged as “the second best hospital in Mexicali.”  Much like the Hertz automobile rental campaign “We try harder,” the directors of Hospital de la Familia have embarked on an aggressive publicity campaign to attract patients and physicians to their facility.  This includes medical tourism – as Hospital de la Familia has partnerships with multiple brokers including PlacidWay and Planet Hospital.

Dr. Gaspar exclusively operates at Hospital de la Familia.

In the ORs at Hospital de la Familia

OR #3 is the plastic surgery suite.  It is spacious and well-lit with modern and functional equipment.  Along with a designated OR, Dr. Gaspar has an operating room team consisting of an anesthesiologist, an assistant surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse.

Dr. Gaspar and his OR team

Dr. Gaspar and his OR team

Anesthesia is managed by Dr. Armando Gonzalez Alvarez.  He monitors the patient with due diligence and remains in attendance at all times.  He avoids distractions during surgery (like texting or excessive cell phone use) and remains patient-focused.

Dr. Gonzalez Alvarez, Anesthesiologist

Dr. Gonzalez Alvarez, Anesthesiologist

Dr. Binicio Leon Cruz, is a general surgeon who serves as Dr. Gaspar’s assistant surgeon during the case.  Monica Petrix Bustamante is the instrumentadora (scrub nurse), and she is excellent, as always*. She knows the surgeries, easily anticipates the doctors’ needs while maintaining surgical sterility and ensuring patient safety.

Monica prepares a prosthesis for implantation

Monica prepares a prosthesis for implantation

Adherence to international protocols

The majority of procedures are under an hour in length, which means that patients do not need deep vein prophylaxis during surgery.  The procedure (including site) and patient identity are confirmed prior to surgery with active patient participation before the patient receives anesthesia with both surgeons, nursing staff and the anesthesiologist in attendance.  Patients are then prepped and draped in sterile fashion, with care taken to prevent patient injury.

As with many plastic surgeons, Dr. Gaspar does not administer IV antibiotics for infection prophylaxis prior to the first incision.  Instead, all patients receive a course of oral antibiotics after surgery***.

Surgical sterility is maintained throughout surgery.  For the first case, after receiving adequate tissue preparation, since only limited liposuction is needed (for very specific sculpting), the patient receives manual liposuction (without suction) to prevent overcorrection or excess fat removal.  Despite having significant adhesions due to previous liposuction procedures, there is very minimal bleeding during the procedure.

Following the procedure, the patient is awakened, extubated and transferred to the recovery room for hemodynamic monitoring and adequate recovery prior to discharge.

Throughout the case, (and during all subsequent checks in the PACU), the patient is hemodynamically stable, and maintains excellent oxygenation.

The second case, is a breast augmentation revision – in a patient with a previous breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer.  The patient developed a capsular contracture which required surgical revision**.

Abdominoplasty

On a separate occasion, Dr. Gustavo Gaspar performed an abdominoplasty with minor liposuction of the “saddle bag” area at the top of the thighs.  For the abdominoplasty case, the patient received conscious sedation with spinal anesthesia.

While an abdominoplasty, “tummy tuck” is a much larger procedure, the case proceeded quickly (1 hour 15 minutes), and uneventfully.  There was very minimal bleeding, and excellent cosmetic results.

skin, and adipose tissue removed during abdominoplasty.

skin, and adipose tissue removed during an abdominoplasty

Gluteal augmentation (Gluteoplasty)

However, it was the gluteal augmentation case that attracted the most interest.  As mentioned during a previous interview, Dr. Gaspar is well-known throughout Mexico for his gluteal implantation technique.

Pre-surgical planning

Pre-surgical planning

Due to the proximity to the anus, and potential for wound infection and contamination, the area is prepped in a multi-step process, in addition to the standard surgical scrub.  A Xoban (iodine impregnated dressing) is applied to the area to prevent bacterial migration to the area around the incision.

For this procedure, Dr. Gaspar uses gluteal prostheses for intramuscular implantation.  Using one, small 3 cm incision, Dr. Gaspar dissects through the gluteal tissue to the muscle plane.  He then inserts the prosthesis and adjusts it into its final position.  When he has finished placing the implant, it is buried deep in the tissue and invisible.

after the implant is placed within the muscle it is invisible to the eye

after the implant is placed within the muscle it is invisible to the eye

He explains that by placing the prostheses in the intramuscular layer, the implants remain in a stable position, and are invisible to the eye and imperceptible to the touch.  (Even with movement and manipulation – there is no edge or pocket seen or felt after the gluteal prosthesis is placed).

The procedure is repeated on the opposite side.  Two small drains are placed, and the incision is closed.  The entire procedure has taken just 18 minutes.

incision and drains at the conclusion of surgery

incision and drains at the conclusion of surgery

Despite the speed by which Dr. Gaspar operates, he is meticulous in his approach. He frequently re-assesses during the procedure (particularly during bilateral procedures) to ensure symmetry of results.

*I frequently encountered Ms. Petrix during previous visits to the operating rooms at Hospital de la Familia during research and writing of the Mexicali book).

** Capsular contraction is one of the most frequently occurring complications of breast augmentation using breast prosthesis (implants).

*** this practice is somewhat controversial but the most recent surgical guidelines and literature on antibiotic stewardship suggest that pre-operative antibiotics may be unnecessary for some surgical procedures.

Thank you to the kind patient who graciously gave permission for publication of pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative photographs on this site.

Additional readings: Gluteoplasty

The majority of publications originate in Latin America and Latin American journals (and are written in Spanish and Portuguese.)  Here is a small selection of open-access, English language journals.

Bruner, T. W., Roberts, T. L. & Nguyen, K. (2006).  Complications of buttocks augmentation: Diagnosis, management and prevention.  Clin Plastic Surg 33: 449 – 466.

Cardenas – Camarena, L. (2005). Various surgical techniques for improving body contour.  Aesth. Plast. Surg. 29:446-455.

Cardenas- Camerena, L. & Palliet, J. C. (2007).  Combined gluteoplasty: Liposuction and gluteal implants.  PRS Journal, 119(3): 1067 – 1074.  Part of a series on gluteal augmentation.

Harrison, D. & Selvaggi, G. (2006). Gluteal augmentation surgery: indications and surgical management.  JPRAS 60:922-928.

Talking with Dr. Gustavo Gaspar Blanco, plastic surgeon


Dr. Gustavo Gaspar Blanco, plastic surgeon

Gaspar 083

Dr. Gustavo Gaspar Blanco is a plastic surgeon in Mexicali (Baja California) Mexico.  He is well-known throughout Baja and Northern Mexico for his gluteal augmentation techniques using gluteal implants.  While this is one of the procedures he is most famous for, he also performs the complete range of body, facial plastic surgery procedures, and post-bariatric reconstructive surgery.

It was an engaging series of interviews as Dr. Gaspar is extremely knowledgeable and passionate about his craft.  “Plastic surgery is different from other specialties, it is an art.  The surgeon needs to have an eye for beauty and symmetry in addition to surgical skill.”

To read more about Dr. Gaspar in the operating room.

Gluteal Implants versus Fat Grafting

There are multiple methods of gluteal augmentation (or buttock enhancement).  Dr. Gaspar performs both fat grafting and gluteal implantation procedures.  He prefers gluteal implantation for patients who are very thin (and have limited fat tissue available for grafting) or for patients who want longer-lasting, more noticeable enhancements.   (With all fat injection procedures, a portion of the fat is re-absorbed).

He recommends fat grafting procedures to patients who want a more subtle shaping, particularly as part of a body sculpting plan in conjunction to liposuction.

Breast Implants and attention to detail

Like most plastic surgeons, breast augmentation is one of the more popular procedures among his patients.  The vast majority of his patients receive silicone implants (by patient request), and Dr. Gaspar reports improved patient satisfaction with appearance and feel with silicone versus saline implants.  He uses Mentor and Natrelle brand implants, and is very familiar with these products.  In fact, he reports that he has visited the factories that create breast implants in Ireland and Costa Rica.  He says he visited these factories due to his own curiosity and questions about breast implants**.

Once he arrived, he found that each implant is made by a time-consuming one at a time process versus a vast assembly line as he had envisioned.  He was able to see the quality of the different types of implants during the manufacturing process.  These implants, which range from $800.00 to $1200.00 a piece, go through several stages of preparation before being completed and processed for shipping.  He also watched much of the testing process which he found very interesting in light of the history of controversy and concern over previous silicone implant leakage in the United States (during the 1960’s – 1970’s).

Gaspar 061

Another aspect of breast augmentation that Dr. Gaspar discusses during my visits is the breast implantation technique itself.  While there are several techniques, in general, he uses the over-the-muscle technique for the majority of breast implantation procedures.  He explains why, and demonstrates with one of his patients (who had the under-the-muscle technique with another surgeon, and now presents for revision).

“While the under-the-muscle technique remains very popular with many surgeons, the results are often less than optimal.  Due to the position of the muscle itself, and normal body movements (of the shoulders/ arms), this technique can cause unattractive rippling and dimpling of the breast.  In active women, it can actually displace the implant downward from pressure caused by normal muscle movements during daily activities.  This may permanently damage, displace or even rupture the implant.”

Instead, he reserves the under-the-muscle implant for specific cases, like post-mastectomy reconstruction.  In these patients (particularly after radiation to the chest), the skin around the original mastectomy incision is permanently weakened, so these patients need the additional support of the underlying muscle to prevent further skin damage.

Not just about outcomes

While his clients, from all over North America, are familiar with his plastic surgery results, few of them are aware of his deep commitment to maintaining the highest ethical and medical standards while pursing excellence in surgery.

Commitment to ethical care of patients crosses language barriers

While Dr. Gaspar is primarily Spanish-speaking, his commitment to ethical practice is crystal clear in any language.  He explains these ethical principles while offering general guidelines for patients that I will share here (the principles are his, the writing style is my own).

Advice for patients seeking plastic surgery

Be appropriate:

– Patients need to be appropriate candidates for surgery: 

Around fifty percent all of the people who walk into the office are not appropriate candidates for plastic surgery, for a variety of reasons.  Dr. Gaspar feels very strongly about this saying, “Unnecessary or inappropriate surgery is abusive.”

– Plastic surgery is not a weight-loss procedure.  Liposuction/ Abdominoplasty is not a weight loss procedure.  Plastic surgery can refine, but not remake the physique.  Obese or overweight patients should lose weight prior to considering refining techniques like abdominoplasty which can be used to remove excess or sagging skin after large-scale weight loss.

fat removed during liposuction procedure

fat removed during liposuction procedure

  – Have surgery for appropriate reasons.  Plastic surgery will not make someone love you.  It won’t fix troubled relationships, serious depression or illness.  Plastic surgery, when approached with realistic expectations (#3) can improve self-esteem and self-confidence.

Realistic expectations – just as plastic surgery won’t result in a 25 pound weight loss, or bring back a wayward spouse, it can’t turn back the clock completely, or radically remake someone’s appearance.  There is a limit to what procedures can do; for the majority people, no amount of surgery is going to make them into supermodels.

Know the limitations

Not only are there limits to what surgery itself can do, there are limits to the amounts of procedures that people should have, particularly during one session.  “Marathon/ Extreme Makeovers” make for exciting television but are a dangerous practice.

Stay Safe:

Just as patients should avoid marathon or multi-hour, multiple procedure surgeries, patients should stay safe.

–          Avoid office procedures

As Dr. Gaspar says, “The safest place for patients is in the operating room.” With the exception of Botox, all plastic surgery procedures should be performing the operating room, not the doctor’s office.  This is because the operating room is a sterile, well-prepared environment with adequate supplies and support staff.  There are monitors to help surgeons detect the development of potential problems, life-saving drugs and resuscitation (rescue) equipment on hand. Should a patient stop breathing, start bleeding or develop a life-threatening allergic reaction (among other things), the operating room (and operating room staff) are well prepared to take care of the patient.

Communicate with your surgeon –

Give your surgeon all the details s/he needs to keep you safe, and have a successful surgery.  Talk about more than the surgeries you are interested in –

– bring a list of all of your medications

– know a detailed history including all past medical problems/ conditions and surgeries.

If you had heart surgery ten years ago – that’s relevant, even if you feel fine now.  Have a history of previous blood transfusions/ radiation therapy/ medication reactions?  Be sure to tell the doctor all about it.

Even if you aren’t sure if it matters, “My sister had a blood clot after liposuction” – go ahead and mention it.. It might just be a critical piece of information such as a family predisposition to thromboembolism (like the example above).

Lastly

Surgical complications are a part of surgery.  All surgeons have them – and having a surgical complication in and of itself is no indication of the quality or skill of the surgeon.  Complications can occur for a variety of reasons.

However, how efficiently and effectively the surgeon treats that complication is a good indicator of skill, experience and expertise.

As part of this, Dr. Gaspar stresses that medical tourism patients need to prepare to stay until they have reached an adequate stage of recovery.  This prevents the development of complications and allows the surgeon to rapidly treat a problem if it develops; before it become more serious.

“There is no set time limit for my patients after surgery, everyone is different.  But none of my patients can go [return home] until I give my approval.”  This philosophy applies to more than just medical tourists from far off destinations. It also applies to any patients have large procedures and their hospitalizations.  While many surgeons race to discharge clients as same-day surgery patients, Dr. Gaspar has no hesitation in keeping a patient hospitalized if he has any concerns regarding their recovery. “Hospitals are the best places for my patients, if I am concerned about their recovery.”

About Dr. Gustavo Gaspar Blanco, MD

Plastic and reconstructive surgeon

Av. Madero 1290 y Calle E

Plaza de Espana, suite 17 (second floor)

Mexicali, B.C

Tele: (686) 552 – 9266

If calling from the USA: 1 (877) 268 4868

Email: gustavo@drgaspar.com

Dr. Gaspar attended medical school at the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara.  He completed both his general surgery residency and plastic surgery fellowship in Mexico City at the Hospital de Especialidades Centro Medico La Raza.

He is a board certified plastic surgeon by the Mexican Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, license number #601.  He has been performing plastic surgery for over 20 years.  Surgeons from areas all over Mexico train with Dr. Gaspar to learn his gluteal implantation techniques.

** He has also visited the facilities in Germany where the Botulism toxin is prepared for cosmetic/ and medical use.

Talking to Dr. Juan David Londoño, plastic surgeon


Dr. Juan David Londoño, plastic surgeon

Dr. Juan David Londoño, plastic surgeon (photo provided)

Dr. Juan David Londoño is a plastic surgeon here in Medellin who specializes in body procedures such as liposuction, abdominoplasties and breast augmentation.

He shares an office with Dr. Jorge Aliro Mejia Canas in the Forum building, next to the Santa Fe shopping mall in the upscale Poblado neighborhood.

He is also one of just a handful of surgeons here who specialize in hair restoration.

Dr. Londoño attended medical school at the Universidad de Antioquia, graduating in 1995.  He completed his plastic surgery residency at the same institution and completed his training in 2003.  While he trained in both reconstructive and aesthesthic plastic surgery, he states that he prefers aesthetic surgery because of the close relationship it entails with patients.

Today we talked primarily about Hair Restoration procedures because it’s his favorite procedure, and one I don’t know much about.

Patience is the key, he states as he explains the ins and outs of hair restoration treatments.  Patience was certainly the order of the day as he carefully and graciously explained the principles of hair transplantation to me.  Patience is necessary he explains, as in, there is no ‘quick fix’.  Hair restoration techniques have evolved with the development of newer procedures but it remains a painstaking process.

Not just for male pattern baldness

While people traditionally think of this treatment as exclusively for male pattern baldness, women also undergo hair restoration in cases of thinning hair.  People can also use this treatment to restore hair to other areas of the body such as the eyebrows (or as commonly publicized in Turkey) for beard restoration.

Treatment options

As Dr. Londoño explains, there are a range of treatments available for the treatment of hair loss, such as male pattern baldness, or thinning hair.  While these treatments run along a continium of scalp massage –> medications  –> surgery; these treatments can also be used to compliment each other.

Probably the best well-known treatments are the medications such as topical applications of minoxidil  (Rogaine) or oral (finesteride) Propecia tablets.  Many people are familiar with these medications due to long-standing and widely viewed pharmaceutical advertisements in the early and late 1990’s.   Both of these medications were originally developed to treat other conditions (hypertension and BPH) and hair growth was quickly noted to be a frequently occurring side effect.   These medications underwent additional clinical trials and study by the FDA before being re-formulated (as a topical spray), in the case of minoxidil, and re-marketed to treat hair loss.

However, these medications are less than ideal for treating a long-term problem like hair loss.  While the medications can prevent additional hair loss, in most cases – additional hair growth is modest and requires continued medical therapy (pills) to maintain.

Scalp massage, is believed to stimulate blood circulation in the scalp and improve the health of the scalp and hair.  It is also quite pleasant for most people.  However, the results of scalp massage as a sole treatment are minimal at best when it comes to the treatment of alopecia.

Surgical methods of hair restoration

The original surgical methods of hair transplantation (or hair restoration) are more widely known for their limited results.  “Hair plugs” refer to the artificial appearance due to the technique of implanting a group of hair in one area, with the finished results often having a row-like appearance (like a doll).

More modern techniques include the strip method, and the most recent technique called Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE).

With the strip method a small area of scalp on the back of the head (where hair is usually the densest, and has the greatest longevity) is surgically removed in a long strip.  The scalp is then sutured closed, leaving a small linear scar.  The area of scalp, and hair follicules are then used for implantation.  By taking a portion of the scalp, the surgeons are able to ensure that the critical portion of the hair shaft – the root is preserved.  This root is needed for hair to survive and grow after implantation.

With the newer Follicular Unit Extraction, each hair, including the root is extracted using a 1mm punch biopsy technique.  (This is like a skin biopsy punch but much smaller.)  Since each root is extracted individually, this is a painstaking and time consuming process.  He reports that depending on the degree of hair loss, the length of the sessions and the results desired by the patient – determines the number of sessions a person will need.   Since this procedure requires multiple sessions, some patients elect for shorter sessions but require a higher number of sessions since this is often more convenient for the schedules of working people.

The first treatment is usually done to re-establish the natural hairline.  Subsequent treatments are needed to fill in areas of hair loss.

For patients who have very little remaining head hair, hair can be taken from other parts of the body.  In general, surgeons use hair from areas (like the so-called “fringe area”) where hair persists despite months or years of hair loss.  These areas are less likely to have hair that will succumb to the processes that caused alopecia in these individuals.

There are newer methods of FUE which use a more automated process, but as Dr. Londoño explains this often incurs a higher cost – and does not improve the outcomes (but does shorten the process somewhat.)  He has the Artas Robot to assist him with the process, (if needed), but cautions readers not to be fooled by surgeons advertising the latest and greatest machinery.  We digress into a conversation about general plastic surgery and the widespread advertising of specifically trademarked (and very expensive) equipment such as SlimLipo, Ultrasound and Vaser.

It’s more about the surgeon than the tools

He cautions consumers not to be fooled into thinking that having the most expensive equipment equals the best surgeon as often these devices are employed only to attract customers and command more expensive prices.  As we discussed in a previous post, these devices were designed for specific uses that may not even be needed for many clients.

Why should patients pay for ultrasound-assisted liposuction when standard liposuction will be equally effective in their case? That’s kind of how he feels about the hair transplant robot.  He has it – and he will use it if he needs it, but it isn’t for everyone.

Results take time

Results of this procedure are not immediate.  The scalp takes time to heal from the transplant procedure, and the newly implanted follicules need to adjust to the transplantation process.   Usually, the initially transplanted hair sheds – leaving living, hair producing roots behind.  These hair roots will then grow new hair as part of the normal hair growth cycle.  But hair takes time to grow – so many patients won’t see the full results of their procedure for up to six months afterwards as the hair grows in to the patient’s normal length.

Costs of the procedure

The near universal standard for hair restoration at many facilities is a dollar a hair.  When you consider that the average (full) head of hair contains 100,000 hairs – the potential costs of this procedure* can be daunting.  However, Dr. Londoño does not apply a “one price fits all” approach to his patients.  Instead his assesses the client, their restoration needs (a small area versus the entire coronal area), the amount (and type) of treatments involved, and the expected results before determining a price.  It is a more personalized and individualized accounting that may not suit some medical tourists who are looking for bargain basement prices however, it seems a better practice.

Dr. Londoño, hair transplant specialist

Dr. Londoño, hair transplant specialist

Dr. Juan David Londoño

Calle 7 sur N. 42-70

Edificio Fórum Poblado,

consultorio 511

Medellin, Colombia

Telé: 448489 or 3140478

Email: ciruplas2@une.net.co

Website: www.cirplalondono.com

Speaks primarily Spanish.

*Generally patients would only need a small fraction of this number for hair restoration.

References and Resources

Khanna M. (2008). Hair transplantation surgery.  Indian J Plast Surg. 2008 Oct;41(Suppl):S56-63.  An excellent overview of the procedures used in hair transplantation with photographs depicting these techniques and results.

Rashid RM, Morgan Bicknell LT. (2012).  Follicular unit extraction hair transplant automation: options in overcoming challenges of the latest technology in hair restoration with the goal of avoiding the line scar. Dermatol Online J. 2012 Sep 15;18(9):12.  The authors compare automated FUE extraction (and limitations) with manual extraction.

Note: the feature photograph(on the front page) has been heavily edited (by me) to depict a gentleman with a receding hairline.  This model actually has a lovely head of hair, but I did not want to use the photo of a real person without permission.  (This photo is open source). This photo is for article art only and is not an attempt to dupe or trick readers.  It is my policy to always disclose when photos have been altered from the original image.

In the operating room with Dr. Luis Botero, plastic surgeon


Please note that some of the images in this article have been edited to preserve patient privacy.  

Today, Dr. Luis Botero has invited me to observe surgery at IQ Interquirofanos in the Poblado section of Medellin.  He is performing full-body liposuction and fat grafting of the buttocks.

Dr. Luis Botero, in the operating room

Dr. Luis Botero, in the operating room

The facility: IQ Interquirofanos

Interquirofanos is located on the second floor

Interquirofanos is located on the second floor

IQ Interquirofanos is an ambulatory surgery center located on the second floor of the Intermedica Building across the street from the Clinica de Medellin (sede Poblado).  The close proximity of this clinic to a hospital is an important consideration for patients in case of a medical emergency.

The anesthesiologists estimate that 90% of the procedures performed here are cosmetic surgeries but surgeons also perform gynecology, and some orthopedic procedures at this facility.

The are seven operating rooms that are well-lit, and feature modern and functional equipment including hemodynamic monitoring, anesthesia / ventilatory equipment/ medications.  There are crash carts available for the operating rooms and the patient recovery areas.

There are fourteen monitored recovery room beds, while the facility currently plans for expansion.  Next door, an additional three floors are being built along with six more operating rooms.

Sterile processing is located within the facility with several large sterilization units.  There is also a pharmacy on-site.  The pharmacy dispenses prosthetics such as breast implants in addition to medications.

The only breast prosthetics offered at this facility are Mentor (Johnson & Johnson) and Natrelle brand silicone implants (Allergan).  In light of the problems with PIP implants in the past – it is important for patients to ensure their implants are FDA approved, like Mentor implants.

In the past seven years, over 31,000 procedures have been performed at Interquirofanos.  The nurses tell me that during the week, there are usually 30 to 35 surgeries a day, and around 15 procedures on Saturdays.

Prior to heading to the Operating Room:

Prior to surgery, patients undergo a full consultation with Dr. Botero and further medical evaluation (as needed).  Patients are also instructed to avoid aspirin, ibuprofen and all antiplatets (clopidogrel, prasugrel, etc) and anti-coagulants (warfarin, dabigatran, etc.) for several days.  Patients should not resume these medications until approved by their surgeon.

Complication Insurance

All patients are required to purchase complication insurance.  This insurance costs between 75.00 and 120.00 dollars and covers the cost of any treatment needed (in the first 30 days) for post-operative complications for amounts ranging from 15,000 dollars to 30,000 dollars, depending on the policy.   All of his clients who undergo surgery at IQ Interquirofanos are encouraged to buy a policy from Pan American Life de Colombia as part of the policies for patient safety at this facility. International patients may also be interested in purchasing a policy from ISPAS, which covers any visits to an ISPAS-affiliated surgeon in their home country.

Today’s Procedures: Liposuction & Fat Grafting

Liposuction – Liposuction (lipoplasty or lipectomy) accounts for 50% of all plastic surgery procedures.   First the surgeon makes several very small slits in the skin.  Then a saline – lidocaine solution is infiltrated in to the fat (adipose) tissue that is to removed. This solution serves several purposes – the solution helps emulsify the fat for removal while the lidocaine-epinephrine additives help provide post-operative analgesic and limit intra-operative bleeding.  After the solution dwells (sits in the tissue) for ten to twenty minutes, the surgeon can begin the liposuction procedure.  For this procedure, instruments are introduced to the area beneath the skin and above the muscle layer.

During this procedure, the surgeon introduces different canulas (long hollow tubes).  These tubes are used to break up the adipose tissue and remove the fat using an attached suctioning canister.  To break up the fat, the surgeon uses a back and forth motion.  During this process – one hand is on the canula.  The other hand remains on the patient to guide the canulas and prevent inadvertent injury to the patient.

fat being removed by liposuction

fat being removed by liposuction

Due to the nature of this procedure, extensive bruising and swelling after this procedure is normal.  Swelling may last up to a month.  Patients will need to wear support garments (such as a girdle) after this procedure for several weeks.

Types of liposuction:

In recent years, surgeons have developed different techniques and specialized canulas to address specific purposes during surgery.

Standard liposuction canulas come in a variety of lengths and bore sizes (the bore size is the size of the hole at the end of the canister for the suction removal of fat tissue.)  Some of these canulas have serrated bores for easier fat removal.

Ultrasound-assisted liposuction uses the canulas  to deliver sound waves to help break up fat tissue.  These canulas are designed for patients who have had repeated liposuction.  This is needed to break up adhesions (scar tissue) that forms after the initial procedure during the healing process.

Laser liposuction is another type of liposuction aimed at specifically improving skin contraction.  This is important in older patients or in patients who have excessive loose skin due to recent weight loss or post-pregnancy.  However, for very large amounts of loose skin or poor skin tone in areas such as the abdomen, a larger procedure such as abdominoplasty may be needed.

During laser liposuction, a small wire laser is placed inside a canula to deliver a specific amount of heat energy to the area (around 40 degrees centrigrade).  The application of heat is believed to stimulate collagen production (for skin tightening).  Bleeding is reduced because of the cautery effect of the heat – but post-operative pain is increased due to increased inflammatory effects.  There is also a risk of burn trauma during this procedure.

There have been several other liposuction techniques that have gone in and out of fashion, and many of the variations mentioned are often referred to by trademark names such as “Vaser”, “SmartLipo”, “SlimLipo” which can be confusing for people seeking information on these procedures.

Fat Grafting

Fat from liposuction procedure to be used for buttock augmentation

Fat from liposuction procedure to be used for buttock augmentation

Fat grafting is a procedure used in combination with liposuction.  With this procedure, fat that was removed during liposuction is relocated to another area of the body such as the buttocks, hands or face.

In this patient, Dr. Botero injects the fat using a large bore needle deep into the gluteal muscles to prevent a sloppy, or dimpled appearance.  Injecting into the muscle tissue also helps to preserve the longevity of the procedure.  However, care must be taken to prevent fat embolism*, a rare but potentially fatal complication – where globules of fat enter the bloodstream.  To prevent this complication, Dr. Botero carefully confirms the placement of his needle in the muscle tissue before injecting.

Results are immediately appreciable.

fat being injected for buttock augmentation. (Photo edited for patient privacy).

fat being injected for buttock augmentation. (Photo edited for patient privacy).

The Surgery:

Patient was appropriately marked prior to the procedure.   The patient was correctly prepped, drapped and positioned to prevent injury or infection.  Ted hose and sequential stockings were applied to lessen the risk of developing deep vein thrombosis.  Pre-operative procedures were performed according to internationally recognized standards.

Sterility was maintained during the case.  Dr. Botero appeared knowledgeable and skilled regarding the techniques and procedures performed.

His instrumentadora (First assistant), Liliana Moreno was extremely knowledgeable and able to anticipate Dr. Botero’s needs.

Circulating nurse: Anais Perez maintained accurate and up-to-date intra-operative records during the case.  Ms. Perez was readily available to obtain instruments and supplies as needed.

Overall – the team worked well together and communicated effectively before, during and after the case.

Anesthesia was managed by Dr. Julio Arango.   He was using an anesthesia technique called “controlled hypotension”.  (Since readers have heard me rail about uncontrolled hypotension in the past – I will write another post on this topic soon.)

Controlled Hypotension

However, as the name inplies – controlled hypotension is a tightly regulated process, where blood pressure is lowered to a very specific range.  This range is just slightly lower than normal (Systolic BP of around 80) – and the anesthesiologist is in constant attendance.  This is very different from cases with profound hypotension which is ignored due to an anesthesia provider being distracted – or completely absent.

With hypotensive anesthesia – blood pressure is maintained with a MAP (or mean) of 50 – 60mmHg with a HR of 50 – 60.  This reduces the incidence of bleeding.

However, this technique is not safe for everyone.  Only young healthy patients are good candidates for this anesthesia technique.  Basically, if you have any stiffening of your arteries due to age (40+), smoking, cholesterol or family history – this technique is NOT for you.  People with high blood pressure, any degree of kidney disease, heart disease, peripheral vascular disease or diabetes are not good candidates for this type of anesthesia. People with these kinds of medical conditions do not tolerate even mild hypotension very well, and are at increased risk of serious complications such as renal injury/ failure or cardiovascular complications such as a heart attack or stroke.  Particularly since this is an elective procedure – this is something to discuss with your surgeon and anesthesiologist before surgery.

The patient today is young (low 20’s), physically fit, active with no medical conditions so this anesthesia poses little risk during this procedure. Also the surgery itself is fairly short – which is important.  Long/ marathon surgeries such as ‘mega-makeovers‘ are not ideal for this type of anesthesia.

Dr. Julio Arrango keeps a close eye on his patient

Dr. Julio Arango keeps a close eye on his patient

However, Dr. Arango does an excellent job during this procedure, which is performed under general anesthesia.   After intubating the patient, he maintained a close eye on vital signs and oxygenation.  The patient is hemodynamically stable with no desaturations or hypoxia during the case.  Dr. Arango remains alert and attentive during the case, and remains present for the entire surgery.  Following surgery, anesthesia was lightened, and the patient was extubated prior to transfer to the recovery room.

He also demonstrated excellent knowledge of international protocols regarding DVT/ Travel risk, WHO safety protocols and intra-operative management.

Surgical apgar score: 9  (however, there is a point lost due to MAP of 50 – 60 as discussed above).

Results of the surgery were cosmetically pleasing.

Post -operative care:

Prior to discharge from the ambulatory care center after recovery from anesthesia the patient (and family) receives discharge instructions from the  nurses.

The patient also receives prescriptions for several medications including:

1. Oral antibiotics for a five-day course**. Dr. Botero uses this duration for fat grafting cases only.

2. Non-narcotic analgesia (pain medications).

3. Lyrica ( a gabapentin-like compound) to prevent neuralgias during the healing period.

The patient will wear a support garment for several weeks.  She is to call Dr. Botero to report any problems such as unrelieved pain, drainage or fever.

Note: after some surgeries like abdominoplasty, patients also receive DVT prophylaxis with either Arixtra or enoxaparin (Lovenox).

Follow-up appointments:

Dr. Botero will see her for her first follow-up visit in two days (surgery was on a Saturday).  He will see twice a week the first week, and then weekly for three weeks (and additionally as needed.)

* Fat embolism is a risk with any liposuction procedure.

**This is contrary to American recommendations as per the National Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) which recommends discontinuation within the first 24 hours to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Colombia ranked 11th in the world for plastic surgery: who says so??


No, not the World Health Organization (WHO), but another entity entirely, ISAPS.

Plastic surgeons in Mexico gather for a demonstration of techniques for breast reconstruction

Plastic surgeons in Mexico gather for a demonstration of techniques for breast reconstruction. Mexico is currently ranked #5 for number of plastic surgeries

 International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS) recently published survey data ranking Colombia at 11th for volume according to the most recent statistics (2011) available.   211,879 total procedures were reported.  Colombia currently ranks #27th globally in population with a 2013 estimated population of 47 million.   Considering the modest population size of Colombia this statistic may reflect both Colombian cultural expectations and the growing trend of medical tourism.

Countries that perform the most cosmetic surgery procedures***:

1. United States: 1,094,146

2. Brazil: 905,124

3. China: 415,140

These top three nations also represent a total population of 1.86 billion people.  Brazil, in particular is also widely known as the medical tourism destination of choice for plastic surgery.

Plastic surgery in Colombia

Of the 211, 879 procedures, 65,075 or 30.7% were breast enhancement procedures.  Liposuction accounted for 23% of all cosmetic surgical procedures.

Dr. Reyes, a plastic surgeon in Bogota, Colombia operates on a patient

Dr. Reyes, a plastic surgeon in Bogota, Colombia operates on a patient

Questionable study results due to lack of participation

However, the accuracy of the data collected by a joint American – Brazilian team is questionable given the low percentage of participation by licensed member surgeons.  Out of 20,000 eligible ISAPS member surgeons, only 996 participated in the organization’s survey.  Additionally, of the .04 percent of surgeons reporting their surgical practices, 43% (431 surgeons) were based in the United States.  Of the remaining 565 surgeons represented the remainder of the worldwide plastic surgery community, 172 of these participants were from Brazil.  The final statistics provided for each country are based on estimates extrapolated from a representative sample from survey responses received.

Are the results any surprise, given the players?  But then again, maybe these results will encourage more Latin American surgeons (and surgeons in other countries) to participate more fully in the academic activities of their specialty societies.

*Mexico was also in the top five with 299,835 procedures.

***As an interesting aside, the island nation of Japan ranked fourth.